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Must-Know Phishing Statistics: Updated 2021

  • By Maddie Rosenthal
  • 10 February 2021

We’ve rounded up the latest phishing statistics, including:

  • The frequency of phishing attacks
  • How phishing attacks are delivered
  • The most common subject lines
  • The prevalence of phishing websites
  • The most common malicious attachments 
  • The data that’s compromised in phishing attacks
  • The cost of a breach
  • The most targeted industries
  • The most impersonated brands 
  • Facts and figures related to COVID-19 scams
  • Phishing and the future of work

Looking for something more visual? Check out this infographic with key statistics.

“Bonus: We will be updating this article throughout 2021 with the latest phishing statistics from third-party sources and Tessian’s own research and platform data. That way, this can remain your go-to resource. Last update? February 2021.”

The frequency of phishing attacks

According to Verizon’s 2020 Data Breach Investigations Report (DBIR), 22% of breaches in 2019 involved phishing. While this is down 6.6% from the previous year, it’s still the “threat action variety” most likely to cause a breach. 

The frequency of attacks varies industry-by-industry (click here to jump to key statistics about the most phished). But 75% of organizations around the world experienced some kind of phishing attack in 2020. Another 35% experienced spear phishing, and 65% faced BEC attacks.

But, there’s a difference between an attempt and a successful attack. 74% of organizations in the United States experienced a successful phishing attack. This is 30% higher than the global average, and 14% higher than last year.

Want to learn how to prevent successful attacks? Check out this page all about BEC prevention.

ESET’s Threat Report reveals that malicious email detections rose 9% between Q2 and Q3, 2020. This followed a 9% rise from Q1 to Q2, 2020.

How phishing attacks are delivered

Hackers are relying more and more heavily on the credentials they’ve stolen via phishing attacks to access sensitive systems and data. That’s one reason why breaches involving malware have decreased by over 40%.

According to Sonic Wall’s 2020 Cyber Threat report, in 2019, PDFs and Microsoft Office files were the delivery vehicles of choice for today’s cybercriminals. Why? Because these files are universally trusted in the modern workplace. 

When it comes to targeted attacks, 65% of active groups relied on spear phishing as the primary infection vector. This is followed by watering hole websites (23%), trojanized software updates (5%), web server exploits (2%), and data storage devices (1%). 

The most common subject lines

96% of phishing attacks arrive by email. Another 3% are carried out through malicious websites and just 1% via phone. When it’s done over the telephone, we call it vishing and when it’s done via text message, we call it smishing.

According to Symantec’s 2019 Internet Security Threat Report (ISTR), the top five subject lines for business email compromise (BEC) attacks:

  1. Urgent
  2. Request
  3. Important
  4. Payment
  5. Attention

Analysis of real-world phishing emails revealed these to be the most common subject lines in Q4, 2020:

  1. IT: Annual Asset Inventory
  2. Changes to your health benefits
  3. Twitter: Security alert: new or unusual Twitter login
  4. Amazon: Action Required | Your Amazon Prime Membership has been declined
  5. Zoom: Scheduled Meeting Error
  6. Google Pay: Payment sent
  7. Stimulus Cancellation Request Approved
  8. Microsoft 365: Action needed: update the address for your Xbox Game Pass for Console subscription
  9. RingCentral is coming!
  10. Workday: Reminder: Important Security Upgrade Required

The prevalence of phishing websites

Google Safe Browsing uncovers unsafe URLs across the web. The latest data shows a world-wide-web rife with phishing websites.

  • Since 2016, phishing has replaced malware as the leading type of unsafe website. While there were once twice as many malware sites as phishing sites, there are now nearly 75 times as many phishing sites as there are malware sites.
  • Google has registered 2,145,013 phishing sites as of Jan 17, 2021. This is up from 1,690,000 on Jan 19, 2020 (up 27% over 12 months).
  • This compares to malware sites rising from 21,803 to 28,803 over the same period (up 32%).

Here you can see how phishing sites have rocketed ahead of malware sites over the years.

This chart - pulled from Google Safe Browsing - shows the steep increase in the number of websites deemed unsafe between January 2016 and January 2021.

The most common malicious attachments

Many phishing emails contain malicious payloads such as malware files. ESET’s Threat Report reports that in Q3 2020, these were the most common type of malicious files attached to phishing emails:

  1. Windows executables (74%)
  2. Script files (11%)
  3. Office documents (5%)
  4. Compressed archives (4%)
  5. PDF documents (2%)
  6. Java files (2%)
  7. Batch files (2%)
  8. Shortcuts (>1%)
  9. Android executables (>1%)

You can learn more about malicious payloads here.

The data that’s compromised in phishing attacks

The top five “types” of data that are compromised in a phishing attack are:

  1. Credentials (passwords, usernames, pin numbers)
  2. Personal data (name, address, email address)
  3. Internal data (sales projections, product roadmaps) 
  4. Medical (treatment information, insurance claims)
  5. Bank (account numbers, credit card information)

While instances of financially-motivated social engineering incidents have more than doubled since 2015, this isn’t a driver for targeted attacks. Just 6% of targeted attacks are motivated by financial incentives, while 96% are motivated by intelligence gathering. The other 10% are simply trying to cause chaos and disruption.

When asked about the impact of successful phishing attacks, security leaders around the world cited the following consequences

  • 60% of organizations lost data
  • 52% of organizations had credentials or accounts compromised
  • 47% of organizations were infected with ransomware
  • 29% of organizations were infected with malware
  • 18% of organizations experienced financial losses
“These costs can be mitigated by cybersecurity policies, procedures, technology, and training. Artificial Intelligence platforms can save organizations $8.97 per record. ”

The cost of a breach

According to IBM’s Cost of a Data Breach Report, the average cost per compromised record has steadily increased over the last three years. In 2019, the cost was $150. For some context, 5.2 million records were stolen in Marriott’s most recent breach. That means the cost of the breach could amount to $780 million.

But, the average breach costs organizations $3.92 million. This number will generally be higher in larger organizations and lower in smaller organizations. 

Losses from business email compromise (BEC) have skyrocketed over the last year. The FBI’s Internet Crime Report shows that in 2019, BEC scammers made nearly $1.8 billion. That’s over half of the total losses reported by organizations.

And, this number is only increasing. According to the Anti-Phishing Working Group’s Phishing Activity Trends Report, the average wire-transfer loss from BEC attacks in the second quarter of 2020 was $80,183. This is up from $54,000 in the first quarter.

This cost can be broken down into several different categories, including:

  • Lost hours from employees
  • Remediation
  • Incident response
  • Damaged reputation
  • Lost intellectual property
  • Direct monetary losses
  • Compliance fines
  • Lost revenue
  • Legal fees

Costs associated remediation generally account for the largest chunk of the total. 

Importantly, these costs can be mitigated by cybersecurity policies, procedures, technology, and training. Artificial Intelligence platforms can save organizations $8.97 per record

The most targeted industries

While the Manufacturing industry saw the most breaches from social attacks (followed by Healthcare and then Professional services), employees working in Wholesale Trade are the most frequently targeted by phishing attacks, with 1 in every 22 users being targeted by a phishing email last year.  

According to a different data set, the most phished industries vary by company size. Nonetheless, it’s clear Manufacturing and Healthcare are among the highest risk industries.

The industries most at risk in companies with 1-249 employees are:

  1. Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals
  2. Education
  3. Manufacturing

The industries most at risk in companies with 250-999 employees are:

  1. Construction
  2. Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals
  3. Business Services

The industries most at risk in companies with 1,000+ employees are:

  1. Technology
  2. Healthcare & Pharmaceuticals
  3. Manufacturing

The most impersonated brands

New research found the brands below to be the most impersonated brands used in phishing attacks throughout Q4, 2020.

In order of the total number of instances the brand appeared in phishing attacks:

  • Microsoft (related to 43% of all brand phishing attempts globally)
  • DHL (18%)
  • LinkedIn (6%)
  • Amazon (5%)
  • Rakuten (4%)
  • IKEA (3%)
  • Google (2%)
  • Paypal (2%)
  • Chase (2%)
  • Yahoo (1%)

The common factor between all of these consumer brands? They’re trusted and frequently communicate with their customers via email. Whether we’re asked to confirm credit card details, our home address, or our password, we often think nothing of it and willingly hand over this sensitive information.

Facts and figures related to COVID-19 scams

Because hackers tend to take advantage of key calendar moments (like Tax Day or the 2020 Census) and times of general uncertainty, individuals and organizations saw a spike in COVID-19 phishing attacks starting in March. But, according to one report, COVID-19 related scams reached their peak in the third and fourth weeks of April.

And, it looks like hackers were laser-focused on money. Incidents involving payment and invoice fraud increased by 112% between Q1 2020 and Q2 2020. It makes sense, then, that finance employees were among the most frequently targeted employees. In fact, attacks on finance employees increased by 87% while attacks on the C-Suite decreased by 37%.
h2 id=”future-work”>Phishing and the future of work

According to Microsoft’s New Future of Work Report

  • 80% of security professionals surveyed said they had encountered increased security threats since the shift to remote work began. 
  • Of these, 62% said phishing campaigns had increased more than any other type of threat.
  • Employees said they believed IT departments would be able to mitigate these phishing attacks if they had been working in the offic

Tessian’s own research supports this. The Future of Hybrid Work shows the phishing was the leading cause of security incidents while employees have been working remotely.

“Humans shouldn’t be the last line of defense. That’s why organizations need to invest in technology and other solutions to prevent successful phishing attacks.”

What can individuals and organizations do to prevent being targeted by phishing attacks?

While you can’t stop hackers from sending phishing or spear phishing emails, you can make sure you (and your employees) are prepared if and when one is received.

You should start with training. Educate employees about the key characteristics of a phishing email and remind them to be scrupulous and inspect emails, attachments, and links before taking any further action.

  • Review the email address of senders and look out for impersonations of trusted brands or people (Check out our blog CEO Fraud Email Attacks: How to Recognize & Block Emails that Impersonate Executives for more information.)
  • Always inspect URLs in emails for legitimacy by hovering over them before clicking
  • Beware of URL redirects and pay attention to subtle differences in website content
  • Genuine brands and professionals generally won’t ask you to reply divulging sensitive personal information. If you’ve been prompted to, investigate and contact the brand or person directly, rather than hitting reply

We’ve created several resources to help employees identify phishing attacks. You can download a shareable PDF with examples of phishing emails and tips at the bottom of this blog: Coronavirus and Cybersecurity: How to Stay Safe From Phishing Attacks.

But, humans shouldn’t be the last line of defense. That’s why organizations need to invest in technology and other solutions to prevent successful phishing attacks. But, given the frequency of attacks year-on-year, it’s clear that spam filters, antivirus software, and other legacy security solutions aren’t enough.

That’s where Tessian comes in. By learning from historical email data, Tessian’s machine learning algorithms can understand specific user relationships and the context behind each email. This allows Tessian Defender to not only detect, but also prevent a wide range of impersonations, spanning more obvious, payload-based attacks to subtle, social-engineered ones.

To learn more about how tools like Tessian Defender can prevent spear phishing attacks, speak to one of our experts and request a demo today.

Maddie Rosenthal